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Eligibility for Heritage Language Courses
Case Studies


Case study 1: Carolyn

Carolyn is enquiring whether she is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Japanese.

Outline of the extent of Carolyn's exposure to Japanese

Carolyn's application for eligibility determination, supported by her signed and witnessed statutory declaration, provides the information that Japanese is her first language. Carolyn was born in Japan and attended the local school there until she was eight. Her parents are Japanese. School records from Carolyn's primary and secondary schools in Australia show that English has been the language of instruction for her schooling from the time she came to Australia as an eight-year-old. Carolyn's application for eligibility determination also states that she has been attending Japanese at a community languages school on Saturday mornings since she was 12 in order to study Japanese and to gain greater experience of Japanese culture.

Analysis of the extent of Carolyn's exposure to Japanese within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Carolyn has had no formal education in a school where Japanese is the language of instruction since she was eight years old. Complies

Determination

Carolyn's exposure to Japanese complies with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Carolyn is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Japanese.

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Case study 2: Joe

Joe is enquiring whether he is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Korean.

Outline of the extent of Joe's exposure to Korean

Joe was born in Seoul, Korea and attended primary school there until the age of seven. His family emigrated to Australia where he completed his primary education. Joe communicates with his family in Korean at home. This information is contained in Joe's application for eligibility determination, supported by his signed and witnessed statutory declaration.

Joe's secondary school records and reports show that he has studied Korean in Stage 4 and Stage 5 at his secondary school and is an outstanding student. In his application for eligibility determination, Joe has provided the information that he has also studied Korean at a Saturday community languages school since he was 10.

Analysis of the extent of Joe's exposure to Korean within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Joe has had no formal education in an institution where Korean was the language of instruction since the age of seven. Complies

Determination

Joe's exposure to Korean complies with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Joe is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Korean.

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Case study 3: Christiane

Christiane is enquiring whether she is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Indonesian.

Outline of the extent of Christiane's exposure to Indonesian

Christiane was born in Holland. Her parents are diplomats and the family communicates at home in both Dutch and English.

When Christiane was five years old the family moved to Indonesia and she attended the local school, where Indonesian was the language of instruction, for three years. At that stage the family again moved, this time to Argentina, where Christiane attended an international school where instruction was given in English.

In Year 7, when Christiane was 12, the family spent three months in Indonesia before coming to Australia. Christiane attended the only school available, a local school where Indonesian was the language of instruction. Christiane has studied Stage 4 and Stage 5 Indonesian at her Australian secondary school.

The information above has been stated clearly in Christiane's application for languages determination, supported by her signed and witnessed statutory declaration. Notes taken at the time of Christiane's enrolment and included with her enrolment forms also provide information, as do copies of her passport entries and reports from her overseas schools, provided by her parents.

Analysis of the extent of Christiane's exposure to Indonesian within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Christiane returned to Indonesia after a gap of four years and had three months' exposure to the language in a school where Indonesian was the language of instruction. This brief period of attendance at a school in Indonesia following a significant break since Christiane's early exposure to the Indonesian language does not constitute formal education. Complies

Determination

Christiane's exposure to Indonesian complies with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Christiane is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Indonesian.

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Case study 4: David

David is enquiring whether he is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Korean.

Outline of the extent of David's exposure to Korean

David was born in Korea. His first language was English. He was educated at a local school in Korea from the age of six until the age of 10. Korean was the language of instruction at the school.

David's parents speak almost no Korean. Their first language is English and they have always communicated with each other and with David in English.

When David was 10, the family moved to Bangladesh, where he attended an international school from Year 5 to Year 10. The language of instruction at the school was English. David studied Korean at the school for each of the four years. David still keeps in touch with his friends in Korea via email and Skype.

This information is stated in David's application for language eligibility, supported by his signed and witnessed statutory declaration. He has also provided copies of passports and reports and records from his schools in Korea and Bangladesh.

Analysis of the extent of David's exposure to Korean within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • David has had no formal education after the age of 10 in a school where Korean was the language of instruction. Complies

Determination

David's exposure to Korean complies with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

David is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Korean.

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Case study 5: Margot

Margot is enquiring whether she is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Chinese.

Outline of the extent of Margot's exposure to Chinese

Margot's first language is English. She communicates mostly in the Shanghai dialect with her parents, for whom the Shanghai dialect of Chinese is the first language, and she has a sound understanding of spoken Chinese.

All of Margot's formal education has been in Australian schools where English is the language of instruction. She studied Chinese in Stage 5 for two years at her secondary school. Margot has occasionally attended a Chinese community school in Australia, and on one occasion she visited relatives in Shanghai for four weeks.

This information has been made available on Margot's languages eligibility application, supported by her signed and witnessed statutory declaration. Written statements from her school's teachers of Chinese indicate that Margot's level of Chinese skill is in keeping with this profile.

Analysis of the extent of Margot's exposure to Chinese within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Margot has had no formal education in a school where Chinese is the language of instruction. Her visit to relatives in Shanghai while on holiday was a social/cultural experience that does not constitute formal education. Complies

Determination

Margot's exposure to Chinese complies with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Margot is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Chinese.

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Case study 6: Greg

Greg is enquiring whether he is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Indonesian.

Outline of the extent of Greg's exposure to Indonesian

Greg's first languages are both English and Indonesian. He has always lived in Australia, and all his formal education to date has been undertaken in a school where English is the language of instruction. Greg communicates mostly in Indonesian with his mother, whose first language is Indonesian, as is noted on Greg's school enrolment form.

Greg has a considerable interest in the culture of Indonesia, and this has been encouraged through family visits, usually once a year, to Indonesia. During these visits, Greg has been able to spend some time, usually one week each year, going to the local school with his cousins. Indonesian is the language of instruction at the school. Greg has studied Indonesian at his secondary school in Australia during Stages 4 and 5.

The above information has been stated clearly on Greg's application for languages eligibility, supported by his signed and witnessed statutory declaration. School records show that Greg has studied Indonesian in Stage 4 and 5, and his parents have provided a letter from the Indonesian school he has attended, indicating the periods of time spent visiting the school and sitting in on lessons with his cousins.

Analysis of the extent of Greg's exposure to Indonesian within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Greg has had no formal education in a school where Indonesian is the language of instruction. His brief visits to the school in Indonesia while on holiday are a social/cultural experience that do not constitute formal education. Complies

Determination

Greg's exposure to Indonesian complies with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Greg is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Indonesian.

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Case study 7: Jade

Jade is enquiring whether she is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Japanese.

Outline of the extent of Jade's exposure to Japanese

Japanese is Jade's first language and the first language of both her parents. Jade attended school in Japan where Japanese was the language of instruction, until she was 11 years old. At this point Jade and her family moved to Australia.

She attended her local primary school and her local secondary school in Australia from Year 6 until Year 10. English is the language of instruction in both schools. Jade studied Japanese in Years 7 to 10.

Jade's application for languages eligibility, supported by her signed and witnessed statutory declaration, provides the above information, and also states that Jade usually speaks in Japanese at home with her parents. Jade has also provided translations of school reports from her Japanese school and her local school records indicate she studied Japanese in Years 7 to 10.

Analysis of the extent of Jade's exposure to Japanese within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Jade's formal education until the age of 11 was undertaken in a school where Japanese was the language of instruction. She has had a full year of formal education after age 10 in a school where Japanese was the language of instruction. Does not comply

Determination

Jade's exposure to Japanese does not comply with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Jade is not eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Japanese.

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Case study 8: Nelson

Nelson is enquiring whether he is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Chinese.

Outline of the extent of Nelson's exposure to Chinese

Nelson is 16 years old. His languages eligibility application, supported by his signed and witnessed statutory declaration, states that he moved to Australia one year ago and that his first language is Chinese. Until Nelson's move to Australia all his formal schooling had been in schools where Chinese was the medium of instruction. Nelson has presented the reports from his school in China to indicate his attendance and the courses he has studied. In the area of China where Nelson went to school, the dialect used is Cantonese, and Nelson speaks this dialect.

At his current Australian school, Nelson has studied the Year 10 course in Chinese. School records show this.

Analysis of the extent of Nelson's exposure to Chinese within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Nelson's formal education until the age of 15 was undertaken in schools where Chinese was the language of instruction. For the purposes of eligibility determination, background speakers of Cantonese and other Chinese dialects are considered to be background speakers of Chinese. Does not comply

Determination

Nelson's exposure to Chinese does not comply with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Nelson is not eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Chinese.

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Case study 9: Miranda

Miranda is enquiring whether she is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Korean.

Outline of the extent of Miranda's exposure to Korean

Miranda has both English and Korean as her first languages. The first language of both Miranda's parents is Korean and the family communicates in Korean at home.Miranda was born in Australia and attended the local primary school with English as the language of instruction.

At the beginning of Year 7, Miranda returned to Korea with her family for one year and attended school there. Korean was the language of instruction and Miranda followed the full school program, including the examinations and assessment program. Miranda turned 12 during this year.

This information was made available on Miranda's enrolment form on the family's return to Australia and Miranda's entry to her secondary school at the beginning of Year 8. The information is also stated on Miranda's languages eligibility application, supported by her signed and witnessed statutory declaration.

Miranda has studied Korean at her current school in Stages 4 and 5.

Analysis of the extent of Miranda's exposure to Korean within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Miranda has undertaken formal education, attending a school where Korean was the language of instruction for a year after the age of 10. Does not comply

Determination

Miranda's exposure to Korean does not comply with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Miranda is not eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Korean.

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Case study 10: Jay

Jay is enquiring whether he is eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Japanese.

Outline of the extent of Jay's exposure to Japanese

Jay's languages eligibility application, supported by his signed and witnessed statutory declaration, states that Jay was born in Japan and attended the local primary school until he was 11. The language of instruction at the school was Japanese. The first language of both Jay's parents is Japanese, and the family communicates largely in Japanese at home.

Jay's application also states that after Jay reached the age of 11, he and his family moved to Australia, and he entered primary school for Year 6. At his Australian primary school, the language of instruction was English. Jay has gone on to attend his local secondary school in Australia and he has studied Japanese in Stage 4 and 5, as school records and reports show. He keeps in contact with his Japanese friends from primary school through email and Skype.

Analysis of the extent of Jay's exposure to Japanese within the framework of the languages eligibility criteria

  • Jay's formal education from Kindergarten to the age of 11 was undertaken in Japan in a school where Japanese was the language of instruction. Does not comply

Determination

Jay's exposure to Japanese does not comply with the eligibility criterion for Heritage courses in languages where there is a Background Speakers course.

Jay is not eligible to study Stage 6 Heritage Japanese.

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